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Table 1 Distribution of age, gender and scale score by pain group

From: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis function and the relationship with chronic widespread pain and its antecedents

  Controls (N = 50) At risk (N = 251) p-valuea CWP (N = 124) p-valueb
  n % n %   n %  
Age group         
   25–43 16 32 91 36   40 30  
   44–54 18 36 78 31   46 37  
   55–65 16 32 82 33 0.85 38 33 0.78
Gender         
   Female 30 60 165 66 0.44 74 60 0.97
  Median IQR Median IQR   Median IQR  
Sleep 3 0–5 6 3–11 0.00 9 5–13 0.00
GHQ 0 1–1.5 1 0–5 0.00 1 0–5 0.00
Somatic symptoms 0 0-0 1 1–2 0.00 1 0–2 0.00
Health anxiety 8 4–11 11 6–15 0.00 9 6–15 0.03
Illness behaviour 2 1–4 6 5–9 0.00 6 4–10 0.00
HAD: anxiety 4 2–7 6 4–9 0.00 7 4–10 0.00
HAD: depression 1 1–4 3 1–6 0.00 5 2–7 0.00
Life events 0 0–1 1 0–2 0.01 1 0–2 0.00
  1. aAt risk compared to controls. bCWP compared to controls. All p-values were by Mann-Whitney U test except those for sex, which were by chi-square test. CWP, chronic widespread pain; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; HAD, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale; IQR, inter-quartile range.