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Table 3 Adverse events with oral opioid and placebo in randomised trials in chronic non-malignant pain

From: Prevalence of opioid adverse events in chronic non-malignant pain: systematic review of randomised trials of oral opioids

  Oral opioid Placebo
  Number of patients Event rate (%) Number of patients Event rate (%)
Adverse event With AE Total Average 95% CI With AE Total Average 95% CI
Patients experiencing any adverse event 1387 2743 51 49–53 122 404 30 26–34
Withdrawals         
   Adverse event withdrawal 933 4221 22 21–23 51 721 7.1 5.2–8.9
   Lack of efficacy withdrawal 177 2719 6.5 5.6–7.4 135 679 20 17–23
Specific adverse events         
   Dry mouth 100 399 25 21–29 3 94 3.2 0–6.7
   Nausea 902 4314 21 20–22 40 718 5.6 3.9–7.2
   Constipation 606 4043 15 14–16 32 643 5.0 3.3–6.7
   Dizziness 530 3899 14 13–15 28 623 4.5 2.9–6.1
   Drowsiness or somnolence 425 3078 14 13–15 21 531 4.0 2.3–5.6
   Pruritus 106 794 13 11–16 7 336 2.1 0.6–3.6
   Vomiting 345 3330 10 9.3–11 12 497 2.4 1.1–3.8
  1. AE, adverse event; CI, 95% confidence interval.