Correlation of LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT score with TGFβ1 Activation Index. (a)Correlation of LDL cholesterol and TGF-β1 Activation Index, using Pearson test. (b) Carotid artery IMT scores were correlated with TGF-β1 Activation Index for control patients and SLE patients, using Pearson correlation. A significant positive correlation was observed for control patients, whereas a significant inverse relationship was identified for SLE patients, with low TGF-β1 Activation Index being associated with increased mean carotid IMT score. Patients with SLICC score 0 have a higher TGF-β1 Activation Index than those with SLICC score 1–3, analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. IMT, intima-media thickness; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics; TGF, transforming growth factor.