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Table 3 Circulating leptin levels in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

From: The role of leptin in innate and adaptive immune responses

Diseases Leptin levels: patients versus healthy controls Correlation of leptin levels with disease activity Comments References
RA Elevated No correlation with CRP No data on BMI [91]
RA Elevated Correlation with CRP Different gender distribution in the groups [92]
RA Similar No correlation Correlated with BMI and percentage of body fat [94]
RA Similar No correlation Correlated with BMI [95]
RA Similar Negative correlation with CRP No effect of short course anti-TNF-α therapy [97]
   and IL-6 on leptin levels  
RA Reduced No correlation No correlation with BMI, CRP or total fat mass [96]
SLE Elevated No correlation Correlated with BMI [102]
Systemic sclerosis Reduced No correlation Correlated with BMI [103]
Behçet's disease Elevated Positive correlation Gender ratio, age and BMI similar in patient and control groups [104]
Multiple sclerosis Similar Positive correlation Leptin levels increased before exacerbation and decreased after treatment with IFN-β [100]
Multiple sclerosis Similar No correlation Leptin levels increased in IFN-β treated patients during active disease and remission [101]
  1. BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.