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Table 1 Effector molecules induced by IL-17 from human cells

From: Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. T lymphocytes

Molecule produced Cell source Major functional effects Reference
IL-1β FLS, Mono/Mac, Chond/OC Inflammation, fever, synergy with IL-17 [52,53,55,58]
IL-6 FLS, Mono/Mac, Chond/OC Acute-phase reaction, B-cell stimulation, Th17 differentiation [51-53,58]
IL-23 FLS Inflammation, Th 17 cell stimulation [56]
TNF-α Mono/Mac Inflammation, synergy with IL-17 [52,53]
CXCL1 (GRO-α) FLS, Chond/OC Leukocyte recruitment [55,60]
CXCL5 (LIX) Chond/OC Leukocyte recruitment [60]
CXCL8 (IL-8) FLS Leukocyte recruitment [51-53,55]
CCL2 (MCP-1) FLS, Chond/OC Leukocyte recruitment [55,60]
CCL20 (MIP-3α) FLS Leukocyte recruitment [54]
G-CSF FLS Granulopoiesis [51]
GM-CSF FLS Granulopoiesis [51–53]
VEGF FLS, Chond/OC Angiogenesis [57,59]
Cyclooxygenase-2 FLS, Mono/Mac, Chond/OC Inflammation [52,58]
Prostaglandin E2 FLS, Mono/Mac, Chond/OC Inflammation [51–53]
RANK/RANK ligand Chond/OC Osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption [53]
Nitric oxide Chond/OC Tissue destruction [52,53,58]
Matrix metalloproteinases Mono/Mac, Chond/OC Cartilage and tissue destruction [53,60]
  1. Chond/OC, chondrocytes and osteoclasts; FLS, fibroblast-like synoviocytes; G-CSF, granulocyte colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor; GRO, growth-regulated oncogene; IL, interleukin; MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein; MIP-3α, macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha; Mono/Mac, monocytes and macrophages; RANK, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.