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Table 3 Association between risk factors and having stiff or painful joints among older women (n = 3,970)

From: Relationship between physical activity and stiff or painful joints in mid-aged women and older women: a 3-year prospective study

  Stiff or painful joints 'sometimes or often' at Time 2 Stiff or painful joints 'often' at Time 2
Variable at Time 1 Unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Adjusteda odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Adjusteda odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
Education     
   Less than high school 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Some high school 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.90 (0.76–1.05) 0.86 (0.68–1.09) 0.90 (0.71–1.16)
   Completed high school 0.92 (0.74–1.13) 0.97 (0.78–1.20) 1.06 (0.77–1.44) 1.17 (0.85–1.62)
   Trade certificate/university degree 1.01 (0.83–1.23) 1.06 (0.86–1.30) 0.80 (0.59–1.10) 0.93 (0.67–1.28)
   Missing 0.89 (0.64–1.24) 0.91 (0.64–1.29) 1.25 (0.79–1.97) 1.37 (0.84–2.22)
Area of residence     
   Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Large town 0.94 (0.76–1.16) 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 0.94 (0.67–1.31) 0.88 (0.62–1.24)
   Small town/remote area 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 1.02 (0.89–1.18) 1.20 (0.98–1.48) 1.15 (0.93–1.42)
   Missing 0.72 (0.42–1.22) 0.75 (0.43–1.29) 0.41 (0.13–1.32) 0.41 (0.12–1.33)
Country of birth     
   Australia 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Other English-speaking 0.95 (0.78–1.15) 0.93 (0.76–1.14) 0.87 (0.64–1.18) 0.90 (0.65–1.23)
   Non-English speaking 1.00 (0.78–1.29) 0.92 (0.71–1.20) 1.02 (0.70–1.49) 0.90 (0.60–1.34)
   Missing 0.94 (0.72–1.23) 0.94 (0.70–1.27) 1.02 (0.68–1.52) 0.91 (0.58–1.42)
Depression     
   No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Yes 1.48 (1.04–2.09) 1.29 (0.90–1.84) 2.15 (1.41–3.29) 1.75 (1.13–2.72)
Number of chronic diseases     
   0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1 1.26 (1.08–1.48) 1.23 (1.05–1.44) 1.42 (1.09–1.85) 1.37 (1.05–1.79)
   2 1.90 (1.59–2.28) 1.83 (1.52–2.19) 2.09 (1.57–2.77) 1.93 (1.44–2.57)
   3 2.43 (1.89–3.14) 2.33 (1.80–3.02) 2.83 (1.99–4.03) 2.53 (1.77–3.63)
   4 or more 3.06 (2.12–4.43) 2.93 (2.02–4.26) 5.02 (3.28–7.69) 4.24 (2.74–6.57)
Smoking status     
   Never 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Former 1.07 (0.93–1.24) 1.08 (0.93–1.25) 1.22 (0.99–1.52) 1.27 (1.01–1.59)
   Current 1.05 (0.78–1.40) 1.10 (0.81–1.49) 1.17 (0.76–1.82) 1.17 (0.75–1.84)
   Missing 1.01 (0.77–1.31) 1.04 (0.78–1.37) 1.06 (0.71–1.59) 1.07 (0.70–1.64)
Body mass index     
   <20 kg/m2 1.04 (0.72–1.48) 0.97 (0.67–1.39) 0.98 (0.54–1.77) 0.86 (0.47–1.58)
   ≥ 20 and <25 kg/m2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   ≥ 25 and <30 kg/m2 1.46 (1.26–1.70) 1.39 (1.19–1.63) 1.46 (1.15–1.84) 1.33 (1.04–1.68)
   ≥ 30 kg/m2 1.42 (1.14–1.77) 1.26 (1.00–1.58) 1.68 (1.23–2.31) 1.32 (0.95–1.84)
   Missing 1.13 (0.92–1.39) 1.07 (0.87–1.32) 1.52 (1.13–2.05) 1.36 (1.00–1.85)
Physical activity     
   None (<40 MET.min/week) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Very low (40 to <300 MET.min/week) 0.98 (0.80–1.22) 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 0.87 (0.65–1.17) 0.94 (0.70–1.27)
   Low (300 to <600 MET.min/week) 1.00 (0.83–1.20) 1.11 (0.92–1.34) 0.63 (0.48–0.82) 0.72 (0.55–0.96)
   Moderate (600 to <1,200 MET.min/week) 0.80 (0.65–0.98) 0.89 (0.72–1.10) 0.48 (0.34–0.67) 0.54 (0.39–0.76)
   High (1,200+ MET.min/week) 0.83 (0.69–0.99) 0.94 (0.78–1.14) 0.51 (0.38–0.68) 0.61 (0.46–0.82)
  1. aAdjusted for all other variables in the table.