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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics and co-morbidities for cases and controls

From: Proton-pump inhibitors are associated with a reduced risk for bleeding and perforated gastroduodenal ulcers attributable to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a nested case-control study

Characteristic Cases (n = 104) Controls (n = 284) OR 95% CI p
Age at diagnosis (years) 70.4 ± 16.7 67.1 ± 14.3    
Female sex 58 (55.8) 163 (57.4)    
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.7 ± 4.7 26.7 ± 4.6 - - 0.001
Smoking 28 (26.9) 51 (18) 1.96 1.15–3.37 0.01
Alcohol (glasses per week) 9.6 ± 33.2 6.2 ± 8.6 - - 0.12
Coffee (cups per week) 18.9 ± 20.6 22.8 ± 13.8 - - 0.06
Education low vocational or less 39 (56.5) 176 (64.0) 0.73 0.43–1.25 0.25
Married 42 (46.7) 166 (59.3) 0.60 0.37–0.97 0.04
Medical history      
   Hypertension 30 (28.8) 95 (33.5) 0.81 0.49–1.32 0.39
   Heart failure 26 (25.0) 32 (11.3) 2.63 1.48–4.67 0.001
   COPD 25 (24.0) 57 (20.1) 1.26 0.74–2.15 0.40
   Myocardial infarction 20 (19.2) 32 (11.3) 1.88 1.02–3.45 0.04
   Stroke 18 (17.3) 28 (9.9) 1.91 1.01–3.63 0.04
   Heart rhythm disturbance 18 (17.3) 52 (18.3) 0.93 0.52–1.69 0.82
   Diabetes mellitus 16 (15.4) 33 (11.6) 1.38 0.73–2.64 0.32
   Anaemia 16 (15.4) 32 (11.3) 1.43 0.75–2.74 0.28
   Renal insufficiency 16 (15.4) 15 (5.3) 3.26 1.55–6.86 0.001
   Previous gastrointestinal ulcers 16 (15.4) 33 (11.7) 1.37 0.72–2.60 0.34
   Malignancy 15 (14.4) 26 (9.2) 1.67 0.85–3.30 0.14
   Rheumatoid disease, including OA 42 (40.4) 97 (34.2) 1.31 0.82–2.07 0.26
  1. Scores are means ± SD or number of patients (percentage). OR, unadjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; OA, osteoarthritis.