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Table 3 Additional gastrointestinal bleeding events and myocardial infarction associated with using NSAIDs and coxibs

From: What do we know about communicating risk? A brief review and suggestion for contextualising serious, but rare, risk, and the example of cox-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs

Event and drug Relative risk Additional events per 1,000 Additional deaths per 1,000 Frequency (1 in)
Gastrointestinal bleeding (background rate 2.2 per 1,000)
   Ibuprofen 1.9 1.98 0.20 5,051
   Naproxen 4.0 6.60 0.66 1,515
   Diclofenac 3.3 5.06 0.51 1,976
   All NSAIDs 4.2 7.04 0.70 1,420
   Celecoxib 1.1 0.22 0.02 45,455
   Rofecoxib 2.0 2.20 0.22 4,545
Myocardial infarction (background rate 8.2 per 1,000)
   Ibuprofen 1.07 0.57 0.17 5,807
   Naproxen 0.98 -0.16 -0.05 -20,325
   Diclofenac 1.44 3.61 1.08 924
   All NSAIDs 1.09 0.74 0.22 4,517
   Celecoxib 0.96 -0.33 -0.10 -10,163
   Rofecoxib 1.26 2.13 0.64 1,563
  1. Any dose of drug was allowed in the data, and the table additionally shows the rate and frequency of additional events. The calculations used a mortality rate of 10% for gastrointestinal bleeding and 30% for cardiovascular events. NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; coxib, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.