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Table 4 Multivariate model for cardiovascular morbidity in the QUEST-RA study

From: Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the QUEST-RA study

  Cardiovascular events (all)a hazard ratio (95% CI)
  All countries Countries with high prevalence Countries with low prevalence
Age 1.04 (1.03–1.06)b 1.05 (1.03–1.07)b 1.04 (1.01–1.06)c
Gender (female) 0.49 (0.36–0.66)b 0.45 (0.31–0.66)b 0.55 (0.32–0.94)c
Rheumatoid factor 0.95 (0.68–1.33) 0.95 (0.64–1.41) 0.90 (0.46–1.73)
Extra-articular disease 1.33 (1.00–1.78) 1.28 (0.92–1.80) 1.60 (0.91–2.84)
Hypertension 1.95 (1.44–2.63)b 1.85 (1.29–2.64)c 2.23 (1.28–3.90)c
Hyperlipidemia 2.41 (1.78–3.27)b 2.16 (1.50–3.10)b 3.24 (1.86–5.65)b
Diabetes 1.34 (0.92–1.96) 1.05 (0.65–1.69) 2.20 (1.18–4.09)c
Ever-smoking 1.56 (1.16–2.12)c 1.46 (1.01–2.11)d 1.88 (1.10–3.22)c
Obesity 1.16 (0.81–1.66) 1.52 (1.01–2.27)d 0.57 (0.25–1.28)
Physical inactivity 0.93 (0.67–1.30) 1.11 (0.75–1.65) 0.61 (0.33–1.10)
  Myocardial infarction hazard ratio (95% CI)
  All countries Countries with high prevalence Countries with low prevalence
Age 1.05 (1.02–1.08)c 1.04 (1.01–1.08)c 1.06 (1.00–1.13)c
Gender (female) 0.46 (0.27–0.80)c 0.55 (0.29–1.06) 0.37 (0.13–1.04)
Rheumatoid factor 0.68 (0.36–1.31) 0.68 (0.31–1.48) 0.82 (0.23–2.91)
Extra-articular disease 2.26 (1.29–3.97)c 2.26 (1.17–4.37)c 2.13 (0.71–6.35)
Hypertension 1.45 (0.83–2.53) 1.10 (0.57–2.15) 2.19 (0.72–6.71)
Hyperlipidemia 3.51 (1.98–6.21)b 3.51 (1.80–6.84)b 4.34 (1.41–13.33)c
Diabetes 1.18 (0.59–2.38) 1.27 (0.56–2.90) 1.01 (0.24–4.29)
Ever-smoking 3.20 (1.74–5.90)b 2.47 (1.22–4.99)c 12.14 (2.50–59.05)c
Obesity 0.74 (0.34–1.62) 0.59 (0.22–1.57) 1.36 (0.37–5.01)
Physical inactivity 0.88 (0.46–1.65) 0.96 (0.45–2.07) 0.87 (0.24–3.12)
  Stroke hazard ratio (95% CI)
  All countries Countries with high prevalence Countries with low prevalence
Age 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.99 (0.93–1.05)
Gender (female) 0.59 (0.31–1.12) 0.66 (0.31–1.42) 0.37 (0.10–1.39)
Rheumatoid factor 0.95 (0.45–2.00) 0.88 (0.38–2.06) 2.67 (0.40–17.71)
Extra-articular disease 1.41 (0.77–2.58) 1.43 (0.69–2.94) 1.31 (0.40–4.30)
Hypertension 2.81 (1.49–5.30)c 2.95 (1.43–6.11)c 2.37 (0.61–9.20)
Hyperlipidemia 1.18 (0.60–2.31) 0.69 (0.27–1.76) 3.69 (1.16–11.78)c
Diabetes 2.23 (1.12–4.44)d 1.70 (0.71–4.07) 4.63 (1.31–16.40)c
Ever-smoking 1.66 (0.89–3.09) 1.74 (0.82–3.69) 1.31 (0.37–4.63)
Obesity 0.72 (0.31–1.68) 0.77 (0.28–2.08) 0.56 (0.11–2.69)
Physical inactivity 1.01 (0.50–2.03) 1.30 (0.59–2.87) 0.52 (0.13–2.09)
  1. High and low values of each cardiovascular event are based on the median. All variables are included simultaneously in the model, adjusted for country. aMyocardial infarct, angina, coronary heart disease, bypass, or stroke. bP < 0.001. cP < 0.01. dP < 0.05. CI, confidence interval; QUEST-RA, Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.