Histological evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of piperine. Paraffin sections of rat ankles were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). (a) Histopathological analysis showed that piperine (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited ankle inflammation. Each photo is representative of five specimens for each group (original magnification × 100). The insets are enlargements of the regions outlined in black, and show the infiltrates at a magnification of × 200. (b) The degree of inflammation was evaluated on a scale from 0 to 5 by three pathologists that were blinded to the treatments. Values are expressed ± standard error of the mean (SEM). *P < 0.05 vs corn oil treated group.