Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Figure 1 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Figure 1

From: Molecular therapies for systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical trials and future prospects

Figure 1

Intracellular components targeted by non-antibody-directed therapeutics in lupus. Activation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) promotes a number of signaling pathways, which may be targeted to treat systemic lupus erythematosus. Drugs that have been evaluated in lupus are indicated in red boxes. Akt, protein kinase B; AP1, activator protein-1; APC, antigen-presenting cell; CDK, cyclin-dependent kinase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; IKK, IκB kinase; MEK, mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T cells; NFκB, nuclear factor kappa B; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; SP1, sphingosine-1-phosphatase receptor; SYK, spleen tyrosine kinase; ZAP-70, z-chain associated protein kinase.

Back to article page