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Table 2 Risk factors for primary joint (hip and knee) replacement for osteoarthritis

From: Reduced rates of primary joint replacement for osteoarthritis in Italian and Greek migrants to Australia: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

  Primary joint replacement Primary hip replacement Primary knee replacement
  Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value Hazard ratio (95% CI) P value
Country of birth       
   Australia 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
   UK 0.90 (0.71–1.15) 0.40 0.81 (0.57–1.17) 0.26 0.99 (0.72–1.36) 0.95
   Italy 0.39 (0.31–0.49) < 0.001 0.45 (0.31–0.63) < 0.001 0.35 (0.25–0.48) < 0.001
   Greece 0.24 (0.17–0.33) < 0.001 0.22 (0.13–0.38) < 0.001 0.25 (0.17–0.38) < 0.001
   Italy/Greece combined 0.32 (0.26–0.39) < 0.001 0.35 (0.26–0.47) < 0.001 0.31 (0.24–0.40) < 0.001
Age per 1 year 1.08 (1.07–1.09) < 0.001 1.07 (1.06–1.09) < 0.001 1.08 (1.07–1.10) < 0.001
Body mass index per 1 kg/m2 1.10 (1.09–1.11) < 0.001 1.05 (1.03–1.07) < 0.001 1.13 (1.12–1.15) < 0.001
Gender (female vs. male) 1.08 (0.95–1.23) 0.25 1.06 (0.88–1.28) 0.55 1.08 (0.90–1.29) 0.42
Education       
   Primary and some secondary 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
   Completed secondary and degree/diploma 1.15 (1.01–1.32) 0.04 1.37 (1.13–1.66) 0.001 0.98 (0.81–1.18) 0.81
  1. Values are mutually adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, country of birth, and education level. CI, confidence interval.