Effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and (CKPV)2 on inflammatory mediator production by monosodium urate (MSU)-stimulated human monocytes. Monocytes were incubated for 18 hours with MSU crystals (1 mg/mL) with or without α-MSH (10-6 M) or (CKPV)2 (10-6 M). Cytokine and caspase-1 protein concentrations were measured in the cell-free supernatants. Bars denote mean ± standard error of the mean. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.02; ***P < 0.01 versus MSU. IL, interleukin; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha.