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Table 1 Urinary biomarkers in lupus nephritis

From: TWEAK: a novel biomarker for lupus nephritis?

Urinary marker Function Patient cohort Main findings
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) [7] Chemokine, particularly for monocyte 25 adult patients with renal flare Urinary MCP-1 predicted flare by 2 to 4 months and slowly fell following treatment
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) [8] Antimicrobial protein and siderophore 35 paediatric patients, 18 with renal disease Urinary NGAL associated with renal disease and chronic damage (90% sensitivity). Not as strongly associated in adult patients
Hepcidin [9] Antimicrobial protein and siderophore 19 adult patients with renal flares. Urine assessed using proteomics Urinary hepcidin predicted flare by 4 months and reduced with treatment
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) [10] Vasoconstrictor, with roles in inflammation and fibrosis 10 adult patients with lupus nephritis Fractional excretion of ET-1 correlated with lupus nephritis and fell with treatment
TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) [1] Proinflammatory cytokine. May be involved in resolution of injury 30 patients with lupus nephritis, 13 lupus nephritis patients in a longitudinal study Urinary TWEAK correlated with lupus nephritis disease activity and fell with treatment