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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Psychological correlates of self-reported functional limitation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

Demographic variables:  
Mean age, SD, years 45.1 (14.40)
Education level  
   ≤12 years, n, % 34 (11.6%)
   13-15 years, n, % 81 (27.6%)
   16 years, n, % 77 (26.2%)
   > 16 years, n, % 102 (34.7%)
Gender, n, male, % 197 (68.2)
Ethnicity, n, white, % 241 (82.0)
Number employed, % 192 (65.5)
Number student, % 26 (8.9)
Married, n, yes, % 153 (55.8)
Medical variables:  
Current tobacco use, n, % 32 (11.0)
Mean number of medical co-morbidities (0-4), SD 2.0 (1.34)
Current NSAID use, n, % 136 (46.6)
Current biologic therapy, n, % 132 (45.2)
Mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate mm/hr, SD 14.9 (16.0)
Mean disease duration, SD, years 21.2 (13.85)
Mean Bath AS Radiographic Index (BASRI) score (1.5-16), SD 6.5 (4.27)
Mean frequency of exercise/week, SD 3.12 (2.34)
Performance of back stretching or strengthening exercises, n, % 188 (63.9)
Physical therapy in the past 4 months, n, % 25 (8.5)
Psychological variables:  
Mean resilience coping (BRCS) score (0-20), SD 16.1 (3.33)
Mean arthritis internality score (6-36), SD 25.7 (5.94)
Mean arthritis helplessness score (5-25), SD 12.4 (4.41)
Mean sepression (PHQ-9) score (0-27), SD 5.1 (5.01)
Mean active coping score (7-35), SD 22.7 (5.22)
Mean passive coping score (11-55), SD 25.6 (7.45)
  1. n = 294. PHQ = Patient Health Questionnaire; SD = standard deviation.