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Table 3 Hierarchical multivariate analysis of demographic, medical and psychological variables in relation to BASFI

From: Psychological correlates of self-reported functional limitation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

Step Independent variable Mean difference R-square (%)* Pvalue+
1 Demographic variables   21.0 * < 0.001 +
  Age 0.54   < 0.001
  Employment -13.58   < 0.001
  Gender -4.68   0.122
  Marital 2.15   0.491
  Education -3.80   0.001
  Student 2.75   0.669
  Ethnicity -4.38   0.259
2 Medical variables   32.0* < 0.001 +
  Current tobacco use 9.12   0.099
  NSAID therapy 6.56   0.021
  BASRI (range 1.5 -- 16) 0.75   0.134
  Biologic therapy 4.96   0.052
  Number of medical co-morbidities 2.08   0.19
  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 0.36   0.001
  Disease duration 0.00   0.86
  Days of general exercise per week -1.5   0.036
  Back exercise -6.35   0.08
  Physical therapy 12.65   0.024
3 Psychological variables   56.3* < 0.001 +
  Arthritis internality (6-36) -0.54   0.048
  Arthritis helplessness (5-25) 1.14   0.004
  Resilience coping (BRCS) (0-20) 0.32   0.507
  Depression (PHQ-9) (0-27) 0.90   0.013
  Active coping (7-35) -0.12   0.703
  Passive coping (11-55) 0.68   0.006
  1. *Overall R-square (%) after the addition of each conceptual block. +Overall P value after the addition of each block. BASFI = Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; BASRI = Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiographic Index; BRCS = Brief Resilient Coping Scale; PHQ = Patient Health Questionnaire.