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Table 2 Summary of included case-control studies and characteristics

From: Bisphosphonates and risk of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis

Study, Year, Country Subjects Mean age
Mean duration (year) Type of bisphosphonate AF definition Total AF events (n) Variables matched and/or controlled Quality assessment score§
Heckbert and colleagues [7], 2008, USA 1,685 women in a commercial health care system database 73 20 Alendronate ICD-9 codes verified by medical records +/- EKG 719 Age, HTN, calendar year, osteoporosis, and any cardiovascular disease 4/2/3
Sorensen and colleagues [19], 2008, Denmark 81,640 women in the National Registry of Patients >75 Not reported Alendronate
ICD-8 and 10 codes 13586 Age, county, cardiovascular disease, renal failure, DM, HRT, fracture, cancer, alcoholism, pulmonary disease, anti-thyroid drugs, osteoporosis, steroid use, etc 3/2/3
Grosso and colleagues* [16], 2009, UK 2,195 women with AF in the UK General Practice Research Database 82 13 Alendronate
Diagnosis codes and Read codes 2195 Age+ 3/2/3
Levesque and colleagues [18], 2009, Canada 63,843 adults (BIS users and raloxifene users) in the Quebec health database 75 4 Alendronate
Not reported 2149 Age, cohort entry year, follow-up, CAD, HTN, and use of HRT N/A
  1. AF, atrial fibrillation; BIS, bisphosphonates; CAD, coronary artery disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; EKG, electrocardiogram; HRT, hormone replacement therapy; HTN, hypertension; ICD, International Classification of Diseases.
  2. * self-controlled case-series. + no other adjustment not needed in self-controlled study, N/A, not applicable (only the abstract was available at the time of this study), a risks specific to etidronate or risedronate not used in meta-analysis, § Methodologic quality assessment score based on Newcastle-Ottawa Scale [23]; selection (0 to 4), comparability (0 to 2), and outcome score (0 to 3) points with a higher score representing a better quality.