Allogeneic T-cell proliferation induced directly by DCs. Bar graphs representing allogeneic T-cell proliferation induced by BMDCs from five patients with SLE and 11 normal controls. Both SLE immature and mature FLDCs induced higher T-cell proliferation, whereas SLE mDCs induced lower T-cell proliferation when compared with normal controls. **P < 0.01. Results are represented as mean ± SD of independent experiments. NC, normal control; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; FLDCs, dendritic cells induced by FL; mDCs, myeloid dendritic cells induced by GM-CSF + IL-4; FL, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor; IL-4, interleukin 4.