The 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor (GRP78) is increased by GS alone and in combination with CS. A. Overexpression values of GRP78 determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of cultured human articular chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plus GS and/or CS (n = 6, P < 0.05*). B. Western blot analysis of GRP78 protein levels in treated chondrocytes. A representative blot is shown, along with the numeric data obtained by densitometry analysis of the blots (n = 4, P < 0.05*).