Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is decreased by GS alone and in combination with CS. A. Underexpression values of SOD2 determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on cultured human articular chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plus GS and/or CS (n = 4, P < 0.05*). B. Western blot analysis of SOD2 protein levels in treated chondrocytes. A representative blot is shown, along with the numeric data obtained by densitometry analysis of the blots (n = 7, P < 0.05*).