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Table 1 Study-design features evaluated in studies examining potential biomarkers

From: Validity of clinical associations of biomarkers in translational research studies: the case of systemic autoimmune diseases

Diagnosis Disease activity Prognosis
Matched for age Matched for age Matched for age
Matched for sex Matched for sex Matched for sex
Matched for race Matched for race Matched for race
Provided information on medications Provided information on medications Provided information on medications
Controlled for treatment effects Controlled for treatment effects Controlled for treatment effects
Reported use of accepted classification criteria Reported use of validated disease-activity measures Reported use of validated measures of damage
Included patients with both early and late disease Longitudinal versus cross-sectional design Longitudinal versus cross-sectional design
Included patients with both active and inactive disease Included a wide range of disease-activity scores  
Included disease controls