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Table 3 Proportion of studies examining potential biomarkers for diagnosis that incorporated important study-design features

From: Validity of clinical associations of biomarkers in translational research studies: the case of systemic autoimmune diseases

  All diseases SLE RA Other diseasesa
  n= 156 n= 48 n= 67 n= 41
Study-design features n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Matched for age 74 (47.4) 30 (62.5) 23 (34.3) 21 (51.2)
Matched for sex 72 (46.1) 28 (58.3) 24 (35.8) 20 (48.8)
Matched for race 51 (32.7) 23 (47.9) 20 (29.8) 8 (19.5)
Provided information on medications 79 (50.6) 34 (70.8) 25 (37.3) 20 (48.8)
Controlled for treatment effects 55 (35.3) 25 (52.0) 13 (19.4) 17 (41.4)
Reported use of accepted classification criteria 140 (89.7) 48 (100.0) 52 (77.6) 40 (97.6)
Included patients with both early and late disease 43 (27.6) 16 (33.0) 18 (26.9) 9 (21.9)
Included patients with both active and inactive disease 58 (43.3) 40 (83.3) 15 (22.4) 3 (15.8)
Included disease controls 61 (39.1) 27 (56.2) 16 (23.9) 18 (43.9)
  1. RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.
  2. aJuvenile idiopathic arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, and inflammatory myopathies.