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Table 4 Proportion of studies examining potential biomarkers for disease activity that incorporated important study-design features

From: Validity of clinical associations of biomarkers in translational research studies: the case of systemic autoimmune diseases

  All diseases SLE RA Other diseasesa
  n= 37 n= 27 n= 9 n= 1
Study-design features n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Adjusted for age 11 (29.7) 10 (37.0) 1 (11.1) 0
Adjusted for sex 12 (32.4) 11 (40.7) 1 (11.1) 0
Adjusted for race 16 (43.2) 11 (40.7) 4 (44.4) 1 (100.0)
Provided information on medications 23 (62.1) 18 (66.7) 4 (44.4) 1 (100.0)
Controlled for treatment effects 21 (56.8) 16 (59.2) 4 (44.4) 0
Longitudinal component 17 (45.9) 11 (40.7) 5 (55.6) 1 (100.0)
Validated disease-activity measures 34 (91.9) 27 (100.0) 7 (77.8) 0
Included wide range of disease activity 34 (91.9) 24 (88.9) 9 (100.0) 1 (100.0)
  1. RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.
  2. aJuvenile idiopathic arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, and inflammatory myopathies.