Skip to main content

Table 2 Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and vascular parameters of patients and healthy controls

From: Small artery elasticity is decreased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without increased intima media thickness

  CTL (n= 30) SLE (n= 30) EH (n= 20)
Age, years 42 ± 11 41 ± 10 49 ± 15
Female, n (%) 26 (87%) 26 (87%) 12 (60%)
BMI, kg/m 2 24 ± 2.6 25 ± 5.0 25 ± 3.7
Blood pressure, mmHg    
   Systolic 120 ± 9 125 ± 17 151 ± 15**##
   Diastolic 70 ± 6 72 ± 10 88 ± 9**##
Dyslipidaemia, n (%) 14 (47%) 15 (50%) 13 (65%)
Smokers, n (%) 3 (10%) 9 (30%)* 3 (15%)#
Family history CVD, n 5 (17%) 5 (17%) 7 (35%)
HbA1c (%) 5.4 ± 0.3 5.7 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 0.4
Statins, n (%) 0 1 (3%) 3 (15%)*
Antihypertensives, n (%) 0 9 (30%)** 0
   Beta-blockers 0 4 (13%)* 0
   ACE inhibitors 0 5 (17%)* 0
   Calcium antagonists 0 1 (3%) 0
Hypertension, n (%) 0 9 (30%)** 20 (100%)**##
SAE, ml/mmHg × 100 8.1 ± 2.6 6.4 ± 2.7** 5.2 ± 3.8**
AF, AU 1.9 ± 0.4 2.1 ± 0.5* 2.3 ± 0.5**
IMT, mm    
   Mean Maximum 0.72 (0.69 to 0.87) 0.71 (0.68 to 0.77) 0.89 (0.76 to 0.99)* ##
   Mean 0.64 (0.59 to 0.70) 0.61 (0.57 to 0.66) 0.75 (0.67 to 0.86)** ##
C-reactive protein, mg/l 0.8 (0.4 to 1.5) 1.8 (0.5 to 4.5)* 1.7 (0.5 to 2.8)
VCAM-1, ng/ml 371 ± 101 548 ± 165** 393 ± 111##
vWf, % 67 (46 to 88) 130 (89 to 223)** 78 (50 to 177)#
TM, ng/ml 1.6 (1.2 to 1.7) 1.7 (1.2 to 2.3) 1.8 (1.5 to 2.6)*
  1. Unless stated otherwise, data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation when normally distributed and as median (interquartile range) when non-normally distributed. ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; AF, autofluorescence; AU, arbitrary units; BMI, body mass index; CrCl, creatinine clearance; CRP, C-reactive protein; CTL, healthy controls; CVD, cardiovascular disease; EH, essential hypertension patients; HbA1c, hemoglobulin A1c; IMT, intima media thickness; SAE, small artery elasticity; SLE, SLE patients; TM, thrombomodulin; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; vWf, von Willebrand factor. Patients versus controls: * P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.01. EH patients versus SLE patients: # P ≤ 0.05, ## P ≤ 0.01.