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Table 4 Treatment effects of rehabilitation interventions on study outcomes

From: Effects of rehabilitative interventions on pain, function and physical impairments in people with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review

Outcome Intervention Study Measurement tool Number SMD (95% CI) Quality: score on PEDro scale
Pain Splints Rannou, et al. [31] VAS 101 0.19 (-0.20, 0.58) 8
  Long-term    97 4.24a (3.52, 4.97)  
  Laser Basford, et al. [22] 0-5 tenderness 81 0.00 (-0.44, 0.44) 8
   Brosseau, et al. [24] AUSCAN pain 86 0.33 (-0.10, 0.75) 10
  Long-term     -0.88 (-0.5, 0.35)  
  Heat therapy Stange-Rezende, et al. [35] VAS 45 0.09 (-0.32, 0.05) 6
  Exercise Lefler and Armstrong [30] 0-6 pain scale 18 0.40 (-0.56, 1.36) 5
   Rogers and Wilder [33] AUSCAN pain 46 -0.04 (-0.45, 0.37) 4
  Massage Field, et al. [27] VITAS 22 1.18a (0.26, 2.10) 3
  Acupuncture Dickens and Lewith [26] VAS 13 NA 6
Hand function Splints Rannou, et al. [31] CHFS 101 1.10a (0.68, 1.52) 8
  Long-term    95 3.73a (3.05,4.40)  
  Laser Brosseau, et al. [24] AUSCAN ADL 86 0.08 (-0.34, 0.50) 10
  Long-term     -0.05 (-0.48, 0.37  
  Heat therapy Stange-Rezende, et al. [35] AUSCAN 45 0.20 (-0.27, 0.67) 6
  Exercise Stamm, et al. [34] HAQ 40 NA 6
   Rogers and Wilder [33] AUSCAN ADL 35 -0.08 (-0.55,0.39) 4
  Acupuncture Dickens and Lewith [26] NS 13 NA 6
Hand strength Splints Rannou, et al. [31] Pinch (Dy) 96 0.9a (0.5, 1.3) 8
  Long-term     1.2a (0.8, 1.6)  
  Laser Basford, et al. [22] Grasp (Dy) 81 0.01 (-0.4, 0.5) 8
   Brosseau, et al. [24] Grip (Dy) 86 NA 10
  Heat therapy Stange-Rezende, et al. [35] Grip (NS) 45 0.00 (-0.4, 0.4) 6
   Favaro, et al. [39] Grip (S) 48 NA 5
  Exercise Stamm, et al. [34] Grip (V) 40 4.5a (3.3, 5.7) 6
   Lefler and Armstrong [30] Grip (Dy) 18 0.7 (-0.13, 1.7) 5
   Rogers and Wilder [33] Grip (Dy) 31 0.2 (-0.3, 0.7) 4
  Massage Field, et al. [27] Grip -10-point scale 22 0.9 (-0.01, 1.7) 3
  Acupuncture Dickens and Lewith [26] Pinch (NS) 13 NA 6
Range of motion Splints Rannou, et al. [31] KI 97 -0.4a (-0.8, -0.03) 8
  Long-term     3.30a (2.7, 3.9)  
  Laser Basford, et al. [22] Goniometer 81 0.00 (-0.4, 0.5) 8
   Brosseau, et al. [24] Goniometer 86 NA 10
  Exercise Lefler and Armstrong [30] Goniometer 18 NA 5
Stiffness Laser Brosseau, et al. [24] AUSCAN stiffness 86 0.30 (-0.1, 0.7) 10
  Long-term     -0.4 (-0.8, 0)  
  Heat therapy Stange-Rezende, et al. [35] AUSCAN stiffness 45 -0.04 (-0.3, 0.2) 6
  Exercise Rogers and Wilder [33] AUSCAN stiffness 31 3.00 (-45, 51) 4
  1. aSignificant treatment effects. ADL, activities of daily living; AUSCAN, Australian/Canadian osteoarthritis hand index; CHFS, Cochin hand functional scale; CI, confidence intervals for continuous variables; Dy, dynamometer(s); HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; KI, Kapandji index (thumb opposition); NA, standardized mean difference not estimable; NS, measurement tool not stated; PEDro, Physiotherapy Evidence Database; S, sphygmomanometer; SMD, standardized mean difference; V, vigorimeter; VAS, visual analogue scale; VITAS, visual analogue scale anchored with five faces.