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Table 4 Parameters for optimal use and interpretation of markers

From: Biochemical markers of ongoing joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis - current and future applications, limitations and opportunities

Biological parameters Sampling parameters Analyte features Assay format Assay parameters Study parameters
Food intake [183] Sample acquisition Active enzyme Competitive assay Dilution recovery Mode of action
Diurnal variation [184188] Sample matrix (serum, urine, plasma or synovial fluid) Latent enzyme Sandwich assay Buffer robustness Duration of study
Seasonal variation Anticoagulant (EDTA, heparin, citrate) Total protein Monoclonal or polyclonal antibody Range of quantization Onset of action
Joint activity [189, 190] Freeze-thaw cycles Fragment of the protein [9] Multiplex or other technique Sensitivity and limit of detection Number of samples, sampling frequency (time course)
Medical condition Shipping and storage conditions   Sample volume Specificity and selectivity of pathology and parameter Patient populationa
  1. Compilation of parameters known to influence biological variation or analytic performance of a given biochemical marker. These parameters include, but are not limited to, biological variation or analytical performance of a given biochemical marker. aAge, gender, menopause status, ethnicity, duration of rheumatoid arthritis, prior treatments such as TNF antagonists, concomitant medications such as corticosteroids, estrogen, SERMs, and bispohosphonates, and comorbidities such as osteoporosis, diabetes, and hypertension with or without renal insufficiency.