|Year||Authors||Enthesis studied||Grey-scale||Doppler mode||Scoring system||Reliability||Sensitivity to change|
grade l: thickening of enthesis (<2 mm thicker than the controlateral asymptomatic side), heterogeneous hypoechogenicity of enthesis and enthesophytosis.|
grade 2: thickening of enthesis (>2 mm thicker than the controlateral asymptomatic side), heterogeneous hypoechogenicity of enthesis, and enthesophytosis.
grade 3: grade 2 with peritendinous oedema.
A, PF (90°),PTPI, PTDI, Q (30°)
GUESS score (0 to 36): Each item scores one point. total possible score on both lower limb is 36|
superior pole of the patella- quadriceps tendon enthesis: quadriceps tendon thickness >=6.1mm, suprapatellar bursitis, superior pole of patella erosion, superior pole of patella enthesophyte
inferior pole of the patella-proximal patellar ligament enthesis: patellar ligament thickness > = 4 mm, inferior pole of patella erosion, inferior pole of patella enthesophyte
tibial tuberosity-distal patellar ligament enthesis: patellar ligament thickness > = 4 mm, infrapatellar bursitis, tibial tuberosity erosion, tibial tuberosity enthesophyte
superior pole of the calcaneus-achilles tendon enthesis: Achilles tendon thickness >=5.29 mm, retrocalcaneal bursitis, posterior pole of calcaneus erosion, posterior pole of calcaneus enthesophyte
inferior pole of the calcaneus -plantar aponeurosis enthesis: Plantar aponeurosis thickness >=4.4 mm, inferior pole of calcaneus erosion, inferior pole of calcaneus enthesophyte.
|2002||Falsetti ||wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, calcaneum||Y||N||
each item scored according to a semi quantitative score: 1: mild,2: moderate,3:considerable|
items scored: synovitis, tenosynovitis, enthesitis
|2003||D'Agostino ||A, PF, tibialis anterior tendon, CET, CFT, PT, Q, trochanter||Y||Y||
stage 1: Vascularization at the cortical junction without abnormal findings in Grey-scale|
stage 2a: Vascularization associated with swelling and/or decreased echogenicity at the cortical junction in Grey-scale
stage 3a: Same as stage 2a, plus erosions of cortical bone and/or calcification of enthesis, and optional surrounding bursitis
stage 2b: Abnormal findings in B mode as in stage 2a, but without vascularization
stage 3b: Abnormal findings in B mode as in stage 3a, but without vascularization
|2003||Falsetti ||A, PF, retrocalcaneal bursae, subcalcaneal fat pad, cortical bone of posterior and inferior aspects of calcaneum||Y||N||Each inflammatory lesion was graded according to a semi-quantitative scale: grade 1: mild, grade 2: moderate, grade 3: considerable||NA||NA|
|2006||Kiris ||MASES *||N||Y||0 = absence, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe||Y||NA|
A, PF (neutral flexion°),PTPI, PTDI, Q (60°)
SEI = the total sum of SEI-A and SEI-C. the maximum SEI scoring is 76 points|
SEI-A (0 to 36): each variable is scored as 0 (absence) or 1 (presence): thickening of tendon/aponeurosis, hypoechogenicity of tendon/aponeurosis, peritendinous/periaponeurotic oedema, bursitis (where applicable)
SEI-C (0 to 40): each variable is scored as 0 (absence) or 1 (presence): tendon tear, loss of thickness, tendon calcification, bone erosion.
|2008||De Miguel ||
A (90°), PF (90°), PTPI and PTDI (70°), distal Q tendon, distal brachial triceps tendon (90°)
MASEI score (0 to 136 on both sides):|
Calcifications were scored on a semi-quantitative score of 0 to 3
Doppler and erosions were scored as 0 or 3 points
Scores for tendon structure, tendon thickness and bursa were either 0 or 1.
Calcifications were examined at the area of the enthesis insertion, and scored as 0 if absent, or 1 if a small calcification or ossification with an irregularity of enthesis cortical bone profile was seen. Calcifications were given a score of 2 if there was clear presence of enthesophytes or if medium sized calcifications or ossification were observed. Lastly, they were classified as a 3 if large calcifications or ossifications were present. To simplify things, ossifications and enthesophytes at the enthesis were also included as calcifications.
|2008||Hatemi ||GUESS **||Y||Y||GUESS score* + Doppler: one point for each enthese with vascularization. Cumulative score for Doppler (max = 10)||U||NA|
|2009||D'Agostino ||Q, PTPI, CET, A, PF||Y||Y||
Grey-scale: hypoechogenicity/thickness: 0 to 1, calcification/enthesophyte: 0 to 1, erosion: 0 to 1|
Doppler : (0 to 3): 0: no signal, 1: minimal (1 spot), 2: moderate (2 spot), 3: severe (> = 3 spots)or Doppler scored as 0 to 1 (absent-present)
|2008||Mc Gonagle ||A (90°)||Y||N||spur (0 to 3):0 absence, 1: minimal, 2: moderate, 3: large||NA||NA|
soft tissue inflammation (seven items): tendon hypoechogenicity, Entheseal hypoechogenicity, Bursal effusion, PDS signal at tendon level, PDS signal at entheseal level, PDS signal at bursal level|
tissue damage (five items): Intratendineous calcifications, Entheseal calcifications, Enthesophytes, Bone erosions, Bone irregularities* (not used to calculate total score)
(1) a total score for soft tissue inflammation, which resulted from the sum of the scores assigned to the 7 US findings indicative of soft tissue inflammation, ranging from 0 to 7 with presence/absence data and from 0 to 14 with semiquantitative scores;
(2) a total score for tissue damage, which resulted from the sum of the scores assigned to the 4 US findings indicative of tissue damage, ranging from 0 to 4 with presence/absence data and from 0 to 8 with semiquantitative scores.
|2009||Iagnocco ||A (neutral position)||Y||Y||
All lesions scored on both a dichotomous scale (present/absent) and a 4-point semiquantitative scale (0 = absent, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe)|
enthesopathy: tendon hypoechogenicity at the level of bony attachment, tendon thickening at the at the level of bony attachment, intra-tendinous calcifications, enthesophytes, bony erosions, bony cortex irregularities, presence of Doppler signal at the level of bony attachment, presence of intratendinous Doppler signal
bursitis: enlargement of deep calcaneal bursa, enlargement of superficial calcaneal bursa
tendon lesion: both partial and full-thickness tendon lesions