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Table 5 A multiple linear regression model for 147 AS patients, dependent variable FVC%

From: Restrictive pulmonary function is more prevalent in patients with ankylosing spondylitis than in matched population controls and is associated with impaired spinal mobility: a comparative study

  Crude Estimates ßa (95% CIb) P-value Adjusted estimatesc ß (95% CI) P-value Final model (R2)
Age -0.3 (-0.6, -0.05) 0.02 ns   0.45
Gender      P < 0.001
Female Reference < 0.01 -8.2 (-12.9, -3.5) 0.001  
Male -8.3 (-14.2, -2.3)     
Smoking d      
Lifelong non-smokers, Reference 0.33 ns   
Ex-smokers and smokers 2.9 (-3.0, 8.8)     
Education b      
≤ 12 years Reference 0.94 ns   
> 12 years 0.3 (-6.3, 6.8)     
ASDAS -1.4 (-4.5, 1.7) 0.36 ns   
BASFI (0 to 10) -1.9 (-3.3, -0.5) < 0.01 ns   
BASMI (0 to 10) -5.6 (-6.9, -4.3) < 0.001 -4.1 (-5.4, -2.7) < 0.001  
Chest expansion (cm) 4.0 (2.8, 5.1) < 0.001 2.7 (1.6, 3.9) < 0.001  
VO 2 peak 0.6 (0.2, 0.9) < 0.001 ns   
  1. a Estimated regression coefficients, b confidence interval, c Adjusted for the other variables in the table, d Smoking (lifelong non-smokers vs ex-smokers and smokers). e Education (≤ 12 years or > 12 years), ns: not significant in the adjusted model