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Table 2 Potential indicators of patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint OA considered in the current study

From: Clinical features of symptomatic patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis

Domain Indicator Source
Risk factors Age; sex  
  1st degree relative with arthritis; previous menisectomy; contralateral TKR In-clinic face-to-face interview
  Body mass index In-clinic measurement
  Clinical hand OA In-clinic self-complete questionnaire + physical examination
Clinical history/symptoms Time since problem onset; gradual onset; problem started following injury; bilateral knee pain; incident pain; duration of morning stiffness; inactivity gelling; reported swelling in past month; reported dramatic swelling ever; locking; giving way In-clinic face-to-face interview
  Pain days in last six months‡; pain, stiffness, aching on most days in the past month; current pain intensity (0 to 10 NRS)‡; significant interference with daily activities in last six months‡; In-clinic self-complete questionnaire
  Whole leg pain; pain walking on a flat surface†; stiffness on waking†; difficulty descending stairs† Prior postal self-complete questionnaire¶
Physical signs Intercondylar gap in standing; intermalleolar gap in standing; PFJ glide/compression test; presence and severity of palpable knee effusion; fixed flexion deformity; bony enlargement; mediolateral instability; isometric knee extensor strength; isometric knee flexor strength; coarse crepitus; knee flexion ROM; TF joint line tenderness; multiple local tender points§; timed single-leg standing balance In-clinic physical examination
  1. ‡ Items from Chronic Pain Grade; † Items from Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) LK3.0, dichotomised at moderate or worse; § four or more from medial femoral condyle, medial TF joint line, lateral femoral condyle, lateral TF joint line, prepatellar, infrapatellar, pes anserinus Completed a median of 53 days prior to research assessment clinic attendance
  2. NRS, numerical rating scale; OA, osteoarthritis; PFJ, patellofemoral joint; ROM, range of movement; TF, tibiofemoral; TKR, total knee replacement