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Table 3 Cytokine levels during the first and third trimester in SLE patients with/without glomerulonephritis before pregnancy

From: Effect of pregnancy on serum cytokines in SLE patients

  1st trimester   3rd trimester  
  SLE patients with glomerulonephritis SLE patients without glomerulonephritis P SLE patients with glomerulonephritis SLE patients without glomerulonephritis P
TNF-α 14.90 (6.50 to 41.00) 10.90 (5.30 to 25.82) n.s. 25.90 (8.20 to 38.80) 10.10 (5.97 to 30.25) n.s.
INF-γ 4.40 (2.20 to 13.00) 3.20 (0.25 to 4.67) n.s. 5.60 (1.50 to 15.80) 2.95 (1.52 to 6.95) n.s.
IL-1α 3.00 (0.50 to 10.00) 0.85 (0.27 to 1.37) n.s. 1.50 (0.40 to 6.60) 1.10 (0.12 to 2.20) n.s.
IL-1β 1.10 (0.37 to 10.025) 1.95 (1.15 to 4.30) n.s. 0.70 (0.32 to 3.37 1.80 (0.60 to 9.30) n.s.
IL-2 6.20 (1.50 to 15.20) 2.15 (1.57 to 4.05) n.s. 6.50 (1.10 to 12.80) 2.50 (1.35 to 6.12) n.s.
IL-8 8.75 (6.70 to 40.75) 27.15 (8.72 to 52.37) n.s. 7.40 (4.70 to 29.30) 24.85 (4.22 to 197.40) n.s.
IL-12 6.40 (2.00 to 22.70) 4.05 (1.77 to 18.02) n.s. 4.20 (1.70 to 25.50) 3.30 (2.02 to 20.65) n.s.
IL-10 3.25 (0.90 to 12.12) 2.50 (1.95 to 4.40) n.s. 4.20 (1.55 to 11.65) 4.60 (2.50 to 5.80) n.s.
IL-6 8.10 (3.50 to 38.10) 5.50 (2.90 to 6.50) n.s. 11.25 (1.55 to 25.57) 9.40 (5.20 to 12.90) n.s.
  1. SLE patients with glomerulonephritis: n = 16; SLE patient without glomerulonephritis: n = 30. The median values (25th to 75th percentile) are expressed in pg/ml.