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Table 1 Pap smear findings, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of lupus patients and control subjects #

From: Antagonist-mediated down-regulation of toll-like receptors increases the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

  SLE patients Control subjects
  Group 1
(HPV-positive)
(n= 15)
Group 2
(HPV-negative)
(n= 31)
Group 3
(HPV-positive)
(n= 7)
Group 4
(HPV-negative)
(n= 22)
Pap smear findings     
   Cytological abnormality * 8 (53) 1 (3) ††† 5 (71) 3 (14) ‡‡
Demographic & social characteristics     
   Age at study, mean ± S.D. (range), year 45 ± 10 (28 to 58) 47 ± 10 (30 to 63) 41 ± 10 (31 to 59) 44 ± 11 (25 to 62)
   Menopause 7 (47) 17 (55) 2 (29) 4 (18) §§
   Married 9 (60) 24 (77) 7 (100) 17 (77)
   Low education level (high school or lower) 12 (80) 25 (81) 7 (100) 15 (68)
   Monthly family income ≤ HK$ 10,000 6 (40) 9 (29) 1 (14) 6 (27)
   Alcohol 0 (0) 3 (10) 1 (14) 1 (5)
   Current smoker 0 (0) 3 (10) 1 (14) 1 (5)
   Employment 7 (47) 11 (35) 2 (29) 18 (82) ‡‡, §§
Reproductive and gynecologic characteristics     
   First intercourse at young age (≤ 17 years) 2 (13) 4 (13) 1 (14) 2 (9)
   Multiple sexual partners (≥ 3) 3 (20) 2 (6) 4 (57) 1 (5) ‡‡
   History of sexually transmitted disease 1 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
   Oral contraceptives 2 (13) 3 (10) 1 (14) 2 (9)
   Condom use by male partner 6 (40) 11 (35) 3 (43) 11 (50)
   Current vaginal discharge 0 (0) 2 (6) 0 (0) 1 (5)
   Bleeding after intercourse 0 (0) 2 (6) 0 (0) 2 (9)
  1. # Values are the number (percentage) unless otherwise indicated. * Refers to atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or squamous intraepithelial lesions. HPV = human papillomavirus; SLE = systemic lupus erythematosus; Group 1 = SLE with positive HPV DNA; Group 2 = SLE with negative HPV DNA; Group 3 = Control subjects with positive HPV DNA; Group 4 = Healthy controls with negative HPV DNA; ††† P <0.001, comparing between SLE patients with and without HPV infection. ‡‡ P <0.01, comparing between control subjects with and without HPV infection. §§ P < 0.01, comparing between SLE and control subjects without HPV infection