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Table 1 Patient characteristic at baseline.

From: APRIL, a proliferation-inducing ligand, as a potential marker of lupus nephritis

  Active LN* (n= 47)
Age, years  
   Mean ± SE 32.90 ± 1.29
   Range, years 26-39
Sex, number  
   Female 50 (96)
Duration of SLE, years  
   Mean ± SE 5.90 ± 0.62
Renal-SLEDAI score 
   Median 12
   Range 8-12
Prednisone use, number (%) 47 (90)
   Median dosage, mg/day 16.00
   Dosage range, mg/day 7.5-50
Immunosuppressive drug use  
   Intravenous methylprednisolone 3
   Intravenous cyclophosphamide 6
   Mycophenolate mofetil 6
   Azathioprine 1
   Hydroxychloroquine 2
Extrarenal manifestation, number (%) 12 (23)
BLyS, ng/mla 1.32 ± 0.15
APRIL, ng/mla 4.10 ± 0.30
   Serum creatinine, mg/dl 1.06 ± 0.08
Proteinuria, g/day
Urinary erythrocyte count, per high power field
3.59 ± 0.31
50.84 ± 11.96
Immunological parameters a  
   C3 (normal range: 70-140 mg/dL) 60.86 ± 6.05,
   ANA, titer 731.20 ± 606.29
   Anti-dsDNA, titer 351.74 ± 73.76
Histological parameters  
   Activity score 7.83 ± 0.70
   Chronicity score 3.01 ± 0.37
  1. *Includes only lupus nephritis class III or IV by ISN/RPS 2003 criteria, ‡ renal-SLEDAI (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Score) uses four endpoints as follows: UPCI or 24-hour urine protein ≥0.5 g/day, urinary RBCs ≥5/HPF, urinary WBCs ≥5/HPF and urinary cellular casts ≥1/HPF; and the maximal point was set at 16. aData are expressed as mean ± SE. ANA, antinuclear antibody; APRIL, a proliferation-inducing ligand; BlyS, B lymphocyte activation protein; HPF, high power field; LN, lupus nephritis; RBC, red blood cells; SLE, systemic lupus erythematous; WBC, white blood cells.