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Table 3 Association between sociodemographic, general health and disease-specific variables to health-related quality of lifea

From: Gout impacts on function and health-related quality of life beyond associated risk factors and medical conditions: results from the KING observational study of the Italian Society for Rheumatology (SIR)

  SF-36 PCS SF-36 MCS
  Crude MD (95% CI) Adjusted MD (95% CI) b Adjusted MD (95% CI) c Crude MD (95% CI) Adjusted MD (95% CI) b Adjusted MD (95% CI) c
Sociodemographic variables      
Gender (female vs. male) -7.37 (-10.67, -4.08)    -3.45 (-6.44, -0.45)   
Age (5 years) -1.04 (-1.45, -0.64)    -0.15 (-0.52, 0.23)   
Education       
   No or primary Reference    Reference   
   Secondary 1.44 (-0.96, 3.84) -0.26 (-2.69, 2.18)   0.52 (-1.68, 2.73) 0.42 (-1.90, 2.73)  
   Upper secondary 5.71 (3.32, 8.10) 3.95 (1.48, 6.41)   2.15 (-0.06, 4.35) 2.11 (-0.24, 4.45)  
   Tertiary 5.40 (1.84, 8.97) 3.84 (0.26, 7.41)   2.30 (-0.98, 5.58) 2.46 (-0.94, 5.86)  
Employment       
   Employed Reference    Reference   
   Unemployed -6.05 (-10.16, -1.94) -3.10 (-7.31, -1.11)   -2.74 (-6.50, 1.03) -1.83 (-5.77, 2.12)  
   Retired -4.59 (-6.69, -2.49) -1.99 (-4.85, 0.88)   -0.21 (-2.13, 1.71) 0.34 (-2.34, 3.01)  
   Unknown - -   - -  
General health variables      
Comorbidity index -1.12 (-1.34, -0.90) -0.98 (-1.22, -0.74)   -0.58 (-0.80, -0.37) -0.62 (-0.85, -0.39)  
Body mass index       
   Normal Reference    Reference   
   Overweight -2.4 7 (-4.97, 0.04) -2.98 (-5.38, -0.58)   -1.06 (-3.32, 1.20) -1.45 (-3.71, 0.81)  
   Obese -4.87 (-7.73, -2.01) -5.79 (-8.51, -3.06)   -2.35 (-4.92, 0.22) -2.72 (-5.29, -0.16)  
Current smokers 0.04 (-2.60, 2.67) -0.90 (-3.45, 1.64)   0.47 (-1.9, 2.84) 0.3 (-2.08, 2.68)  
High alcohol consumers 0.57 (-1.47, 2.60) -0.58 (-2.56, 1.39)   -0.94 (-2.77, 0.88) -1.33 (-3.17, 0.52)  
Gout-related variables      
Disease duration (>5 years) -2.54 (-4.49, -0.58) -2.37 (-4.25, -0.49) -1.70 (-3.45, 0.05) -2.54 (-4.29, -0.79) -2.61 (-4.35, -0.86) -2.08 (-3.79, -0.37)
Joint involvement       
   Monoarticular Reference    Reference   
   Oligoarticular (2 to 4 joints) -3.13 (-5.53, -0.73) -3.35 (-5.64, -1.06) -2.22 (-4.38, -0.07) 0.40 (-1.78, 2.57) 0.27 (-1.90, 2.44) 0.96 (-1.18, 3.10)
   Polyarticular (>4 joints) -5.66 (-8.69, -2.62) -5.92 (-8.82, -3.01) -3.79 (-6.55, -1.04) -1.05 (-3.80, 1.70) -1.25 (-4.00, 1.50) 0.42(-2.30, 3.16)
Number of attacks last year -0.70 (-0.94, -0.47) -0.71 (-0.93, -0.49) -0.56 (-0.77, -0.36) -0.45 (-0.66, -0.24) -0.44 (-0.65, -0.23) -0.34 (-0.55, -0.13)
Attacks last month -8.18 (-10.15, -6.20) -8.62 (-10.49, -6.76) -8.13 (-9.88, -6.38) -3.22 (-5.09, -1.35) -3.33 (-5.20, -1.47) -2.72 (-4.58, -0.86)
Presence of tophi -4.72 (-7.15, -2.30) -4.16 (-6.50, -1.83) -3.20 (-5.41, -0.99) 0.56 (-1.62, 2.75) 0.71 (-1.47, 2.89) 1.26 (-0.88, 3.40)
Number of swollen joints -0.91 (-1.17, -0.65) -0.78 (-1.04, -0.53) -0.54 (-0.79, -0.29) -0.40 (-0.64, -0.16) -0.37 (-0.62, -0.13) -0.20 (-0.45, 0.04)
Number of tender joints -0.64 (-0.79, -0.49) -0.58 (-0.73, -0.42) -0.39 (-0.55, -0.24) -0.38 (-0.52, -0.24) -0.36 (-0.51, -0.21) -0.24 (-0.39, -0.09)
Serum uric acid       
   <5 mg/dl Reference    Reference   
   5 to 6 mg/dl -0.09 (-3.14, 2.96) -0.15 (-3.06, 2.76) -0.60 (-3.24, 2.02) -0.2 (-2.97, 2.57) -0.23 (-2.99, 2.52) -0.66 (3.19, 1.86)
   6 to 7 mg/dl -0.12 (-3.09, 2.86) -0.60 (-3.46, 2.26) 0.48 (-2.32, 3.29) -1.68 (-4.38, 1.03) -1.71 (-4.42, 0.99) -0.75 (-3.55, 2.04)
   >7 mg/dl -1.78 (-4.56, 0.99) -2.95 (-5.63, -0.28) -2.06 (-4.51, 0.38) -1.45 (-3.98, 1.07) -1.78 (-4.31, 0.76) -1.00 (-3.39, 1.38)
Urate-lowering treatment 0.41 (-2.05, 2.87) 0.37 (-2.01, 2.75) 0.49 (-1.71, 2.69) 0.27 (-1.94, 2.47) 0.06 (-2.16, 2.27) 0.03 (-2.12, 2.19)
Current NSAIDs or colchicine -7.03 (-8.95, -5.11) -6.67 (-8.52, -4.82) -5.47 (-7.38, -3.56) -2.79 (-4.57, -1.00) -2.53 (-4.32, -0.75) -2.13 (-4.04, -0.23)
Previous corticosteroids -5.10 (-7.26, -2.95) -4-67 (-6.75, -2.59) -3.51 (-5.46, -1.26 -4.15 (-6.06, -2.23) -3.90 (-5.83, -1.98) -3.39 (-5.30, -1.48)
  1. aAssessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, physical and mental summary score. CI, confidence interval; MCS, Mental Component Summary; MD, mean difference; PCS, Physical Component Summary. aAdjusted for age and gender. bAdjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, body mass index, smoking, high alcohol consumption, education and employment (on 10 imputed datasets).