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Table 3 Baseline demographic and clinical factors associated with medication use at baseline; results of multivariable modelling

From: How do people with knee osteoarthritis use osteoarthritis pain medications and does this change over time? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

  Outcome
  Analgesic(s) Nutraceutical(s)
Baseline factor Prescription;
any use reported
Prescription or OTC;
frequent use reported
Prescription or OTC;
number of different types used
Frequent use reported
Female 1.5 (1.1 - 2.0), P = 0.010 1.8 (1.3 - 2.3), P >0.001 IR 1.4 (1.2 - 1.8), P = 0.001 1.2 (0.9- 1.6), P = 0.197
Non-white 1.0 (0.7 - 1.4), p = 0.891 1.0 (0.7 - 1.3), p = 0.908 IR 1.0 (0.8 - 1.2), P = 0.733 0.4 (0.3 - 0.6), P <0.001
Age reference reference reference reference
65 to 74 versus <65 0.9 (0.7- 1.3), P = 0.722 1.0 (0.8 - 1.4), P = 0.919 IR 1.0 (0.8 - 1.2), P = 0.669 1.0 (0.8 - 1.4), P = 0.922
>74 versus <65 1.4 (0.8 - 2.3), P = 0.224 1.4 (0.8 - 2.3), P = 0.197 IR 1.0 (0.7 - 1.5), P = 0.830 0.6 (0.3 - 0.9), P = 0.026
KL grade reference reference reference reference
3 versus 2 1.2 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.180 1.2 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.133 IR 1.1 (0.9 - 1.4), P = 0.375 1.3 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.108
4 versus 2 1.4 (0.9 - 2.1), P = 0.107 1.4 (1.0 - 2.1), P = 0.071 IR 1.3 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.147 2.2 (1.5 - 3.3), P <0.001
Pain NRS reference reference reference reference
4 to 7 versus 0 to 3 1.3 (0.9 - 1.9), P = 0.152 1.7 (1.2 - 2.4), P = 0.001 IR 1.3 (1.0 - 1.7), P = 0.070 0.9 (0.6 - 1.2), P = 0.496
8 to 10 versus 0 to 3 1.9 (1.2 - 2.9), P = 0.004 3.1 (2.1 - 4.7), P <0.001 IR 1.7 (1.3 - 2.4), P = 0.001 0.8 (0.5 - 1.2), P = 0.204
Co-morbidity 1.1 (0.8 - 1.5), P = 0.544 1.1 (0.8 - 1.5), P = 0.491 IR 1.1 (0.9 - 1.4), P = 0.337 0.6 (0.5 - 0.9), P = 0.005
BMI reference reference reference reference
26 to 30 versus <26 1.0 (0.6 - 1.6), P = 0.944 1.0 (0.7 - 1.5), P = 0.973 IR 1.0 (0.7 - 1.4), P = 0.868 0.9 (0.6 - 1.4), P = 0.686
>30 versus <26 1.3 (0.9 - 2.1), P = 0.205 1.4 (0.9 - 2.1), P = 0.152 IR 1.2 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.191 0.7 (0.5 - 1.1), P = 0.114
Number of subjects included 987 987 987 987
Overall model significance:
Likelihood ratio test
χ 2 =30.3, df = 11, p = 0.001 χ 2 =72.7, df = 11, p<0.001 χ 2 =38.8, df = 11, p<0.001 χ 2 =81.2, df = 11, p<0.001
Goodness-of-fit test:
Hosmer & Lemeshow
χ2=2.3, df = 8, p = 0.970 χ2=11.27, df = 8, p = 0.187 χ2=564.6*, df = 975, p = 0.579 χ2=2.6, df = 8, p = 0.955
  1. *Pearson Chi-square goodness-of-fit; Values presented are odds ratio (95% CI) unless otherwise stated; bold type indicates statistical significance. BMI, body mass index kg/m2; IR, incident rate; KL, Kellgren-Lawrence; NRS, numerical rating scale; OTC, over the counter.