Skip to main content

Table 1 Panel of lectins (plant agglutinins and human galectins) used for glycophenotyping of human OA cartilage

From: Glycophenotyping of osteoarthritic cartilage and chondrocytes by RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry, histochemistry with plant/human lectins and lectin localization with a glycoprotein

Plant and lectins Abbreviation Monosaccharide specificity Optimized concentration (ng/μl) Potent oligosaccharide/glycoprotein glycan ligands
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) agglutinin ConA Man/Glc 0.5 Manα6(Manα3)Manβ4GlcNAcβ4GlcNAc
Pisum sativum (pea) agglutinin PSA Man/Glc 0.5 N-glycan binding enhanced by core fucosylation
Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) erythroagglutinin PHA-E a 1 Bisected complex-type N-glycans: Galβ3/4GlcNAcβ2Manα6(GlcNAcβ2-Manα3)(GlcNAcβ4)Manβ4GlcNAcβ4GlcNAc
Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) leukoagglutinin PHA-L a 1 Tetra- and triantennary N-glycans with β6-branching
Viscum album (mistletoe) agglutinin VAA Gal 0.5 Galβ3(4)GlcNAc without/with α2,6-sialylation, Galα3(4)Gal, Galβ2(3)Gal, Fucα2Gal
Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) agglutinin LEA a 2 core and stem regions of high-mannose-type N-glycans, (GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAcβ3Gal) repeats (LacDiNAc to polyLacNAc)
Maackia amurensis agglutinin-I (leukoagglutinin) MAA-I a 20 Neu5Ac/Gcα3Galβ4GlcNAc/Glcb, 3′-sulfation instead of sialylation and 9′-O-acetylation tolerated
Sambucus nigra (elderberry) agglutinin SNA Gal/GalNAc 0.4 Neu5Ac/Gcα6Gal/GalNAcc, clustered Tn-antigen, 9′-O-acetylation tolerated
Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) agglutinin DBA GalNAc 50 GalNAcα3GalNAcα3Galβ4Galβ4Glc, clustered Tn-antigen, histo-blood group A- tetrasaccharide, β-linked GalNAc in Sda antigen
Arachis hypogaea (peanut) agglutinin PNA Gal 0.7 Galβ3GalNAcα/β
Artocarpus integrifolia (jack fruit) agglutinin Jacalin (JAC) Gal/GalNAc 0.7 Galβ3GalNAcα, sialylation of T/Tn antigens tolerated
Galectin-1 Gal-1 d 1 Type I/II disaccharides (α2,3-sialylation/sulfation tolerated), LacNAc repeats (terminal α2,6-sialylation not tolerated), Fucα2Gal, extended core 2/4 structures, multiantennary N-glycans
Galectin-3 Gal-3 d 1 Type I/II and core 1 disaccharides (α2,3-sialylation/sulfation tolerated), LacNAc repeats (terminal α2,6-sialylation tolerated), GalNAcβ4GlcNAc (LacdiNAc), Galα3Galβ4GlcNAc, histo-blood group ABH epitopes, multiantennary N-glycans/clustered T-antigen
  1. ano monosaccharide known as ligand; bbinding specific for type II LacNAc (Galβ4GlcNAc) core [32]; cbinding of type I LacNAc (Galβ3GlcNAc) core preferred, 6′-sulfation of GlcNAc in α2,6-sialylated LacNAc (type I/II) enhances affinity [33]; dextension of Gal core to disaccharide (mostly in β-linkage such as Galβ2Gal or Galβ4Glc) required.