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Table 1 The dual role of infrapatellar fat pad in the joint

From: An emerging player in knee osteoarthritis: the infrapatellar fat pad

Evidence Reference
Evidence for a protective role of IFP in the knee  
IFP is preserved even under extreme emaciation conditions. [2]
Downregulation of NO production, glycosaminoglycan release, and MMP1 expression in cartilage by FCM from IFP [43]
Presence of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their precursors in ACM/FCM from IFP [36, 37]
Presence of MSCs and macrophages with anti-inflammatory characteristics in IFP [29, 43, 54]
Evidence for an inflammatory role of IFP in the knee  
IFP inflammation as observed on MRI is associated with knee pain [29]
Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by IFP is correlated with BMI [53]
Increased fibrosis by synoviocytes under influence of FCM [24]
Increased cytokine production and proliferation of Th1 cells under influence of ACM from IFP [51]
Increased collagen release and MMP1 and MMP13 expression [29]
  1. ACM, adipocyte-conditioned medium; BMI, body mass index; FCM, fat-conditioned media; IFP, infrapatellar fat pad; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; NO, nitric oxide; Th, T helper.