Effects of ginsenoside Rh1 combined with DEX on TNF-induced NF-κB translocation and DUSP1 activation. After pretreatment with solvent, DEX (1 μM), or Rh1 (10 μM) combined with DEX for 2 h or 24 h, (A-B) TNF (20 ng /ml) was added for 30 minutes and localization of p65 was determined by Western blot. (C-D) TNF was added for the indicated time periods (15 and 30 minutes) and expression of phospho-IκBα and total IκBα was determined. The experiment was replicated three times. (E) After pretreatment with solvent, DEX, Rh1 combined with DEX, or Rh1 for 2 h or 24 h, TNF was added for 2 h and DUSP1 was determined by means of quantitative PCR. Gene expression of the housekeeping gene β-actin was used for normalization. Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance (*P <0.01 versus Control; #P <0.05, ##P <0.01 versus DEX group; ΔP <0.05, ΔΔP <0.01 versus TNF group; &P <0.05, &&P <0.01 versus TNF + DEX group). The experiments were replicated three times, and the results are representative of at least two independent induction experiments. DEX, dexamethasone; DUSP1, dual specificity protein phosphatase 1; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.