Effect of Rh1 combined with DEX on GRE activity and some gluconeogenesis-related genes. RAW264.7 cells were treated with solvent, DEX alone or Rh1 combined with DEX for 24 h. (A) Cell lysates were assayed for luciferase activities. Promoter activities are expressed as relative induction factor, that is, the ratio of expression levels recorded either at induced and non-induced conditions, with the latter taken to be 1. Assays were performed in triplicate, and results are representative of at least two independent induction experiments. (B) Primary hepatocytes were treated with solvent, DEX alone or Rh1 combined with DEX for 24 h. RNA was isolated and reverse transcribed. The resulting cDNA was subjected to PCR analysis with primers to detect the household gene GAPDH (loading control) or the gene coding for DUSP1, PEPCK and G6P in the same sample. *P <0.01 versus control, #P <0.01 versus DEX group. DEX, dexamethasone; DUSP1, dual specificity protein phosphatase 1; G6P, glucose-6-phosphatase; GRE, glucocorticoid receptor elements; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinasee phosphatase; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.