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Table 2 Characteristics of CD4+ T cells chronically exposed to tumour necrosis factor

From: Studies of T-cell activation in chronic inflammation

1 Upregulation of activation antigens such as CD69
2 Induction of nondeletional, proliferative hyporesponsiveness
3 Suppression of cytokine production
4 Uncoupling of TCR signal transduction pathways
5 Repression of CD28 gene transcription