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Table 4 Clinically relevant sources of mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage engineering

From: Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of traumatic articular cartilage defects: a comprehensive review

MSC source In vivoassessment of focal AC defect treatment Advantages Disadvantages
Bone marrow Clinical and pre-clinical [7],[38],[45],[47],[48],[51],[53],[59],[60],[65],[66],[68],[69],[71]-[73],[76]-[78],[80]-[85],[88]-[91],[97] Most rigorous investigation and strongest supporting evidence Propensity to form osseous tissue (could be beneficial for osseous regeneration in osteochondral lesions)
Ease of collection by needle
Long-term safety reported
Peripheral blood Clinical and pre-clinical [29],[61],[98] Ease of collection by needle Paucity of literature comparing this source to others
Synovial tissue Pre-clinical [50],[52]-[54],[56],[62],[64],[67],[70] Greatest chondrogenic capacity noted based on in vitro study Clinical assessment is lacking
Periosteum Pre-clinical [7],[56] Equivalent chondrogenic capacity to bone marrow Propensity to form osseous tissue
Clinical assessment is lacking
Adipose tissue Pre-clinical [46],[49],[56] Abundance of tissue Reduced chondrogenic capacity
Widespread anatomic availability Clinical assessment is lacking
  1. AC, articular cartilage; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell.