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Table 1 Biologics targeting ligand-receptor pairs involved in non-canonical nuclear factor-κB signaling in rheumatoid arthritis

From: Non-canonical NF-κB signaling in rheumatoid arthritis: Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde?

Ligand Receptor Biologic Type of agent Activity of biologic Stage of development
BAFF BAFF-R Belimumab (Benlysta; Human Genome Sciences/GlaxoSmithKline) Human BAFF-specific antibody Antagonist Phase II
Tabalumab/LY2127399 Human BAFF-specific antibody Antagonist Phase II
CD40L CD40 BI 655064 Humanized CD40-specific antibody Antagonist Phase I in progress
- LTβR Baminercept Human LTβR-IgG1 fusion protein Antagonist Phase II
LTα LTβR Patecluzimab Humanized LTα-specific antibody Depleting and antagonist Phase II in progress
RANKL RANK Denosumab (Prolia/Xgeva; Amgen) Human RANKL-specific antibody Antagonist Phase II
  1. BAFF, B cell activating factor; BAFF-R, BAFF receptor; CD40L, CD40 ligand; Ig, immunoglobulin; LTα, lymphotoxin-α; LTβR, LTβ receptor; RANK, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB; RANKL, RANK ligand.