Microarray results of gene expression profiles in CD4 T cells were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Independent-samples t tests were performed to compare rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n = 40) with healthy individuals (n = 35). Data were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Con, control.