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Table 1 Effect of cholinergic agonists on tumour necrosis factor formation in stimulated monocytes/macrophages

From: The interface between cholinergic pathways and the immune system and its relevance to arthritis

Cell type Agonist TNF levels Reference
 Monocyte-derived macrophages Acetylcholine, nicotine [6]
  Choline [64]
  Nicotine [66]
 Monocytes Nicotine [70]
  Nicotine, cotinine [69]
  Nicotine X [72]
  Nicotine [65]
 (mononuclear cells) Whole blood Choline [64]
  Nicotine X [72]
 (rheumatoid arthritis) Nicotine, GTS-21 [71]
 Resident peritoneal macrophages Nicotine [13]
  Nicotine, AR-R17779 [74]
  Nicotine [73]
  GTS-21 [84]
 Elicited peritoneal macrophages Nicotine, acetylcholine [17]
  Choline [64]
  Acetylcholine [75]
  Nicotine [76]
  1. X = No change. TNF, tumour necrosis factor.