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Table 4 Determinants of osteoporosis (OP) or osteopenia in patients with primary SS

From: Subclinical atherosclerosis and impaired bone health in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome: prevalence, clinical and laboratory associations

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (n = 38) Absence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (n = 24) P -value Odds ratio 95% (CI) P -value
Classical risk factors for osteoporosis  
Age, years 59. 9 ± 10.1 52.8 ± 14.6 0.03   
Family history of fracture, % 5.4 27.2 0.02   
Past medical history of fracture, % 15 8.3 ns   
Body mass index 26.9 ± 4.7 28.2 ± 6.8 ns   
Age of menarche, years 13.4 ± 1.7 13.1 ± 2.4 ns   
Age of menopause, years 49.4 ± 4.1 50.6 ± 6.3 ns   
Calcium, mg/dl 9.7 ± 0.5 9.3 ± 0.6 0.02 3.2 (1.01, 10.4) <0.05
Phosphate, mg/dl 3.4 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.6 ns   
Calcium urine/24 h, g 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.2 ns   
Phosphate urine/24 h, g 0.5 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 ns   
25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, ng/ml 21.2 ± 12.9 21.4 ± 8.1 ns   
Parathyroid hormone, pg/ml 50.2 ± 22.6 41.6 ± 16.6 ns   
Current thyroid stimulating hormone levels (μ IU/dl) 1.34 ± 2.1 1.3 ± 1.5 ns   
Total steroid dose, g 9.8 ± 17.8 3.2 ± 0.5 ns   
Current steroid dose, mg/day 1.6 ± 2.4 0.5 ± 1.4 ns   
Disease-related features  
Sjogren's syndrome activity index 1.85 ± 1.49 1.74 ± 1.8 ns   
Disease duration, years 9.1 ± 7.4 7.3 ± 6.3 ns   
Focus score, number of lymphocytic foci/4 mm2 1.9 ± 1.8 2.4 ± 1.9 ns   
Whole salivary flow, ml/15 minutes 2.0 ± 2.9 2.6 ± 3.1 ns   
Urine pH 6.3 ± 7.4 5.8 ± 0.4 0.03 4.5 (1.004, 20.4) <0.05
Urine specific gravity 1,014 ± 6.9 1,015 ± 7 ns   
Arthralgias, % 80 54.2 0.03   
Peri-epithelial disease, % 27.5 8.3 ns   
  1. ns, not significant.