Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical characteristics in all patients at first study biopsy

From: Histological antiphospholipid-associated nephropathy versus lupus nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: an observational cross-sectional study with longitudinal follow-up

  All patients LN hAPLN* P value
(n = 112) (n = 96) (n = 16)
Median age (years (range)) 38 (18-84) 37 (18-84) 45 (26-62) 0.37
Male/female 23/89 18/78 5/11 0.3
Serum creatinine (μmol/L; median) 77 75 116 <0.0001
Serum albumin (g/L; median) 29 29 30 0.9
Haemoglobin (g/L; median) 113 114 110 0.2
Hypertension (n (%)) 41 (37) 30 (31) 11 (69) 0.03
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg; median) 125 120 137 0.01
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg; median) 80 80 80 0.1
Autoantibodies (n (%))*     
 aCL 58 (52) 46 (48) 12 (75) 0.05
 anti-β2GP1 23 (21) 17 (18) 6 (38) 0.07
 LA 28 (25) 21 (22) 7 (44) 0.06
 Single positive aPL 36 (32) 31 (32) 5 (31) 0.9
 Double positive aPL 9 (8) 8 (8) 1 (6) 0.8
 Triple positive aPL 18 (16) 12 (13) 6 (38) 0.02
 Definite APS 13 (12) 10 (10) 3 (19) 0.3
Treatment (n (%))     
 Prednisolone (mg/day; median (range)) 8 (0-60) 8 (0-40) 15 (0-60) 0.006
 ACEi/ARB 40 (36) 29 (30) 11 (69) 0.007
 Warfarin 10 (9) 7 (7) 3 (19) 0.2
 ASA 16 (14) 13 (14) 3 (19) 0.7
  1. *Previous findings and/or at renal biopsy. P values are the comparison between the two diagnostic groups (LN/hAPLN). Values in bold are significant at <0.05. Single positive, double positive and triple positive refers to autoantibody findings at or before biopsy. ACEi, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; aCL, anticardiopin antibodies; anti-β2GP1, anti-β2-glycoprotein-1; APS, antiphospholipid syndrome; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; ASA, acetylsalicylic acid; hAPLN, histopathological antiphospholipid-associated nephropathy; LA, lupus anticoagulant; LN, lupus nephritis.