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Table 1 Quantitative PCR of synovial tissue after 2 weeks of antibody treatment during collagen-induced arthritis (fold increase over isotype control-treated samples (2−ΔΔCt)

From: Complementary action of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-17A induces interleukin-23, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, and matrix metalloproteinases and drives bone and cartilage pathology in experimental arthritis: rationale for combination therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

   Gene Anti-IL-17 Anti-GM-CSF Anti-IL-17 + anti-GM-CSF
Damaging Proinflammatory T cell factors IL-17A 1.63 ± 0.56 not detected 1.48 ± 1.0
GM-CSF 1.12 ± 0.73 0.55 ± 0.54 0.55 ± 0.2
RORγt 5.06 ± 2.94a,b 0.68 ± 0.30c 1.68 ± 0.96c
IL-21 2.30 ± 1.14 0.88 ± 0.61 0.71 ± 0.35
RANKL 0.97 ± 0.49 0.36 ± 0.19 0.80 ± 0.56
Matrix metalloproteinases MMP3 0.87 ± 0.45 0.24 ± 0.10 0.51 ± 0.26
MMP9 1.18 ± 0.71 0.36 ± 0.18 0.75 ± 0.42
MMP13 0.89 ± 0.38 0.44 ± 0.18 0.60 ± 0.31
MMP14 1.43 ± 0.55 0.58 ± 0.22 0.74 ± 0.32
ADAMTS5 1.34 ± 0.67 0.43 ± 0.24 0.89 ± 0.50
Alarmin S100A8 1.82 ± 0.93 0.56 ± 0.23 1.08 ± 0.58
Pro-inflammatory DC/Mϕ-derived IL-1β 1.09 ± 0.44 0.85 ± 0.40 1.67 ± 1.03
IL-23 0.45 ± 0.19 1.02 ± 0.56 1.71 ± 0.89
Protective Anti-inflammatory T cell factor IL-10 1.53 ± 0.81 0.62 ± 0.38 0.71 ± 0.35
Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors TIMP1 1.31 ± 0.56 0.48 ± 0.23 0.85 ± 0.42
TIMP2 1.05 ± 0.39 0.50 ± 0.18 0.58 ± 0.25
TIMP3 0.77 ± 0.09 0.63 ± 0.15 0.70 ± 0.09
TIMP4 0.79 ± 0.19 0.97 ± 0.19 0.91 ± 0.22
Th1/Th2 transcription factors T-bet 1.75 ± 0.53 0.77 ± 0.11 0.84 ± 0.18
GATA3 1.87 ± 0.71 0.67 ± 0.27 0.69 ± 0.20
  1. GM-CSF granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL interleukin, Th helper T cell
  2. n = 6 mice/treatment group
  3. a p ≤ 0.001 vs. anti-IL-17 + anti-GM-CSF (two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s multiple-comparisons test)
  4. b p ≤ 0.0001 vs. anti-GM-CSF
  5. c p ≤ 0.0001 vs. anti-IL-17