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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics, 25(OH)D levels and clinical characteristics of the population included in the study

From: Vitamin D deficiency in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases: results of the cardiovascular in rheumatology [CARMA] study

  Rheumatoid arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Psoriatic arthritis Controls
(n = 775) (n = 738) (n = 721) (n = 677)
Age at inclusion, years, mean (SD) 57.1 (12.3) 48.1 (11.7) 51.8 (12.0) 54.0 (12.4)
Age at the beginning of disease, years, mean (SD) 45.8 (13.4) 29.7 (11.8) 39.5 (13.3) 48.5 (12.4)
Female sex, n (%) 581 (75.0) 200 (27.1) 327 (45.4) 437 (64.5)
Educational level, n (%)
 Elementary 467 (60.9) 318 (43.3) 331 (46.3) 229 (34.1)
 University /secondary 300 (39.1) 416 (56.7) 383 (53.7) 443 (65.9)
Caucasian Race, n (%) 747 (96.6) 723 (98.0) 712 (98.9) 668 (98.7)
 Others 26 (3.4) 15 (2.0) 8 (1.1) 9 (1.3)
Main activity, n (%)
 Sedentary 236 (35.0) 263 (39.3) 253 (38.9) 291 (46.3)
 Moderate 290 (43.0) 238 (35.5) 241 (37.1) 207 (32.9)
 Active with displacement 148 (22.0) 169 (25.2) 156 (24.0) 131 (20.8)
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD) 26.9 (4.8) 27.4 (4.4) 28.2 (4.7) 26.7 (4.4)
Obesity (BMI ≥30), n (%) 180 (23.2) 186 (25.2) 209 (29.1) 147 (21.8)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Current smokers 189 (24.4) 254 (34.4) 157 (21.8) 143 (21.2)
 Past smokers 202 (26.1) 240 (32.5) 227 (31.5) 176 (26.0)
 Never smokers 384 (49.5) 244 (33.1) 337 (46.7) 357 (52.8)
25 (OH) D
 25(OH)D (ng/ml), median (p25 − p75) 20.4 (14.4–29.2) 20.9 (13.1–29.0) 20.0 (14.0–28.8) 24.8 (18.4–32.6)
25(OH)D deficiency, n (%) 314 (40.5) 293 (39.7) 295 (40.9) 181 (26.7)
Sunshine hours/month*, median (p25 − p75) 162 (122–219) 165 (136–233) 178 (128–235) 301 (202–345)
Disease duration, years, median (p25 − p75) 8.0 (3.0–14.0) 15.0 (8.0–26.0) 9.0 (4.0–16.0) 2.0 (0.0–6.0)
RF-positive, n (%) 528 (68.1) -- -- --
ACPA-positive, n (%) 482 (62.2) -- -- --
DAS28-ESR, mean (SD) 3.2 (1.2) -- 3.0 (1.3) --
HAQ (0–3), median (p25 − p75) 0.5 (0.1–1.1) -- 0.4 (0.0–0.9) --
ESR (mm/h), median (p25 − p75) 17.0 (9.0–29.0) 10.0 (6.0–21.0) 12.0 (6.0–21.0) 10.0 (5.0–18)
CRP (mg/l), median (p25 − p75) 3.1 (1.2–8.0) 3.6 (1.6–8.9) 2.9 (1.4–6.1) 1.9 (1.3–3.3)
BASDAI (0–10), median (p25 − p75) -- 3.5 (1.7–5.3) -- --
BASFI (0–10), median (p25 − p75) -- 3.1 (1.3–5.2) -- --
HLA-B27, n (%) -- 561 (76) -- --
Erosions (RA), n (%) 352 (45.4) -- -- --
Biologic therapy (% ever treated), n (%) 313 (40.4) 349 (47.4) 300 (41.7) --
Vitamin D, n (%) 325 (41.9) 82 (11.1) 114 (15.8) 138 (20.4)
Calcium supplements, n (%) 328 (42.3) 68 (9.2) 105 (14.6) 122 (18.0)
  1. 25(OH)D deficiency is defined as 25(OH)D <20 ng/ml. *Hours of sunshine per month considering the period of time between 60 and 90 days prior to the baseline visit (blood test to determine the levels of 25(OH)D was performed at the baseline visit). BMI body mass index, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, p25 − p75 25th to 75th percentile, RF rheumatoid factor, ACPA anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, DAS28-ESR, disease activity score using 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HAQ (0–3): health assessment questionnaire, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, BASDAI (0–10) Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index, BASFI (0–10) Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index, HLA-B27 histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27, RA rheumatoid arthritis