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Table 4 Characteristics of included trials related to CRP

From: Effects of non-pharmacological interventions on inflammatory biomarker expression in patients with fibromyalgia: a systematic review

Reference Participants Study design Diagnosis of FM Treatment group Control group Study duration Outcomes Findings
Ardiç et al. (2007) [37] N = 31 RCT ACR 1990 Balneotherapy Usual care N/A CRP, IL-1α, PGE2, LTB4, RF, ESR No declaration of the changes to serum CRP levels between pre- and post-intervention
Mean age: (n = 12) (n = 9) 2 time points
43.5 ± 10.2 years (balneotherapy) 3 weeks 3 weeks (before and at the end of therapy)
48.8 ± 8.8 years (usual care) 5 days per week Healthy serum
43.4 ± 8.2 years (healthy) 20 minutes each (n = 10)
Gender:
female only
Ortega et al. (2009) [28] N = 27 Non-RCT (pilot) ACR Patients Healthy N/A CRP, IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-8, The concentrations of serum CRP in FM patients were significantly higher than in the healthy control group between pre- and post-exercise (p <0.05)
Age range: (unspecified year) (n = 14) (n = 13) IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, NA, cortisol
30–60 years (patients) Pool-aquatic exercise 2 time points After 4 months of exercise, the level of serum CRP in FM patients decreased compared to the baseline level (p <0.05)
28–55 years (healthy) 4 months (before and 2 days after finishing the exercise)
Gender: 3 days per week
female only 60 minutes each serum
Ortega et al. (2012) [29] N = 18 Non-RCT ACR 1990 Patients Healthy N/A CRP, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 The concentrations of serum CRP in FM patients were significantly higher than in the healthy control group across the study interval (p <0.01)
Age range: (n = 9) (n = 9) 3 time points
30–60 years (patients) Pool-aquatic exercise (before, midway through: 4 months and at the end of program: 8 months) After 8 months of exercise, the level of serum CRP in FM patients decreased compared to the baseline level (p <0.05)
28–55 years (healthy) 8 months
Gender: twice a week (samples were collected 2 days after finishing the last session of the exercise) serum
female only 60 minutes each
Senna et al. (2012) [30] N = 83 RCT ACR 1990 Dietary weight loss Usual care N/A CRP, IL-6 The levels of serum CRP in the intervention group were significantly lower than the usual care group after 6 months of intervention (p <0.01), although there were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline
Mean age: (N = 41) (n = 42) 2 time points
44.8 ± 13.6 years (intervention) 6 months 6 months (baseline and after 6 months of intervention)
(BMI 32.3 ± 1.4) 1200 kcal/day serum
46.3 ± 14.4 years (usual care) (with 15–20 % of energy intake in the form of protein, 50–55 % in the form of carbo-hydrates, and approximately 30 % in the form of fat divided in three meals)  
(BMI 32.8 ± 1.4)
Gender:
male 9.8 %, female 90.2 % (intervention) male 9.5 %, female 90.5 % (usual care)
Menzies et al. (2014) [31] N = 64 RCT ACR 1990 Guided imagery Usual care N/A CRP, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, GM- There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups in the levels of plasma CRP at baseline, 6 weeks or 10 weeks
Mean age: (n = 30) (n = 34) CSF, IL-12, IL-17, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1β,
44.5 ± 13.1 years (guided imagery) 10 weeks 10 weeks IL-6, IL-7, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, G-CSF The levels of plasma CRP for all of the participants were elevated but demonstrated little variation from baseline to 6 weeks or to 10 weeks (4.27, 4.57, 4.55 mg/L, respectively)
49.1 ± 12.4 years (Usual care) use CD tracks at least once a day 3 time points
Gender: For the first 6 weeks, listen to the three (baseline, week 6, week 10) plasma
female only CD tracks (each one CD in 2 weeks).
For the last 4 weeks, listen to the tracks in any order
  1. ACR American College of Rheumatology, BMI body mass index, CD compact disc, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, G-CSF granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, GM-CSF granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IFN-γ interferon gamma, IL interleukin, LTB4 leukotriene B4, MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MIP-1β macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, NA noradrenaline, N/A not available, Non-RCT non-randomized controlled trial, PGE2 prostaglandin E2, RCT randomized controlled trial, RF rheumatoid factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha