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Table 1 Participant characteristics by race

From: Determinants of patient preferences for total knee replacement: African-Americans and whites

Characteristic White (n = 514) African-American (n = 285) P valuea
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age, mean ± SD, years 64.54 ± 9.39 58.68 ± 8.13 <0.001
Sex, n (%) female 302 (58.8) 207 (72.6) <0.001
Currently married, n (%) 275 (53.5) 65 (22.8) <0.001
Education, n (%)    <0.001
≤High school or GED 200 (39.1) 170 (60.1)
 Post-secondary training, Associates/Bachelors degree 194 (38.0) 98 (34.6)
 Graduate degree 117 (22.9) 15 (5.3)
Income, n (%)    <0.001
 <$10,000 32 (6.9) 84 (31.7)
 $10,000-$19,999 72 (15.6) 83 (31.3)
 $20,000-$29,999 75 (16.2) 35 (13.2)
 $30,000-$39,999 50 (10.8) 17 (6.4)
 $40,000-$49,999 51 (11.0) 12 (4.5)
 ≥$50,000 183 (39.5) 34 (12.8)
Employment status, n (%)    <0.001
 Full time 145 (28.4) 70 (24.6)
 Part time 51 (10.0) 23 (8.1)
 Unemployed 36 (7.0) 46 (16.2)
 Disabled 53 (10.4) 81 (28.5)
 Retired 226 (44.2) 64 (22.5)
Health insuranceb, n (%)    
 Medicare 225 (46.2) 98 (35.5) 0.004
 Medicaid 53 (11.2) 63 (22.9) <0.001
 HMO or private/group 381 (77.6) 161 (57.7) <0.001
 No insurance 12 (2.6) 21 (7.7) 0.001
 MOS social support, mean ± SD 15.17 ± 4.79 13.44 ± 5.26 <0.001
 Recruitment site, n (%) non-Veterans Affairs 467 (90.9) 278 (97.5) <0.001
Clinical characteristics
 WOMAC , mean ± SD 42.98 ± 15.27 53.98 ± 15.10 <0.001
 Comorbidities, mean number ± SD 3.22 ± 1.71 3.56 ± 1.69 0.007
 PHQ-9 depression, mean ± SD 4.77 ± 4.67 6.63 ± 5.5 <0.001
 SF-12 physical health, mean ± SD 38.50 ± 11.01 36.25 ± 10.00 0.0045
  1. a P value from Pearson chi square or t test. bIndividuals may be included in multiple categories. MOS Medical Outcomes Study, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, SF MOS 12-Item Short Form Health Survey, WOMAC Western Ontario McMaster Index, GED General Educational Development test, HMO Health Maintenance Organization