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Table 1 Baseline demographic, anthropometric, RA-related, and CVD characteristics, and atherosclerotic measurements for the total RA population as well as the exercise and control groups

From: The beneficial effects of Tai Chi exercise on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in elderly women with rheumatoid arthritis

  Total (n = 43) Tai Chi group (n = 29) Control group (n = 14) P
Demographic, mean ± SD
 Age, years 63.6 ± 5.53 64.0 ± 5.4 62.7 ± 5.9 0.469
Anthropometric, mean ± SD
 Height, cm 153.8 ± 5.6 154.2 ± 5.7 153.0 ± 5.6 0.506
 Weight, kg 54.0 ± 7.8 53.7 ± 7.6 54.6 ± 8.4 0.725
 BMI, kg/m2 22.8 ± 2.9 22.5 ± 2.7 23.4 ± 3.2 0.388
 Waist circumference, cm 79.3 ± 8.4 78.3 ± 8.5 81.4 ± 8.1 0.259
 Waist-hip ratio 0.86 ± 0.53 0.85 ± 0.01 0.87 ± 0.05 0.142
Medical history, n (%)
 Hypertension 23 (53.5) 15 (51.7) 8 (57.1) 0.739
 Diabetes mellitus 3 (7.0) 1 (3.4) 2 (14.3) 0.191
 Dyslipidemia 20 (46.5) 12 (41.4) 8 (57.1) 0.331
 Coronary artery disease 2 (4.6) 1 (3.4) 1 (7.1) 0.590
 Cerebrovascular disease 4 (9.3) 2 (6.9) 2 (14.3) 0.434
 Smoking 6 (13.9) 2 (6.9) 4 (28.6) 0.133
RA medication, n (%)
 Methotrexate 36 (83.7) 24 (82.8) 12 (85.7) 0.806
 Hydroxychloroquine 17 (39.5) 11 (37.9) 6 (42.9) 0.757
 Sulfasalazine 5 (11.6) 3 (10.3) 2 (14.3) 0.706
 Leflunomide 11 (25.6) 7 (24.1) 4 (28.6) 0.755
 Glucocorticoids 31 (72.1) 21 (72.4) 10 (71.4) 0.946
 Dosage, median, mg/day 2.5 2.5 2.5 0.168
RA characteristics, mean ± SD
 Disease duration, years 12.0 ± 9.2 10.3 ± 9.4 15.4 ± 8.0 0.092
 anti-CCP, n (%) 38 (88.4) 24 (82.8) 14 (100) 0.307
 Swollen joint count, 0–69 joints 1.2 ± 2.4 1.5 ± 2.9 0.6 ± 0.9 0.237
 Tender joint count, 0–69 joints 3.6 ± 4.7 4.5 ± 5.5 1.6 ± 1.5 0.012
 DAS-28-ESR 3.7 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 0.6 0.229
 RAPID3 9.4 ± 4.5 9.4 ± 4.7 9.2 ± 4.0 0.895
 HAQ 0.54 ± 0.46 0.63 ± 0.50 0.35 ± 0.29 0.024
 ESR 31.7 ± 21.9 31.4 ± 22.7 32.2 ± 21.0 0.908
 CRP 0.44 ± 0.44 0.48 ± 0.49 0.36 ± 0.34 0.384
CVD, mean ± SD
 Systolic BP, mm Hg 130.5 ± 11.6 129.2 ± 12.1 133.1 ± 10.5 0.313
 Diastolic BP, mm Hg 77.6 ± 5.2 77.0 ± 4.8 78.7 ± 6.0 0.331
 Heart rate 72.0 ± 6.1 72.5 ± 5.4 71.0 ± 7.5 0.473
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl 184.6 ± 35.8 187.3 ± 36.1 179.0 ± 35.6 0.480
 Triglycerides, mg/dl 112.2 ± 47.4 108.7 ± 36.6 122.14 ± 54.3 0.343
 HDL, mg/dl 61.6 ± 12.0 63.9 ± 12.1 56.8 ± 10.5 0.070
 LDL, mg/dl 97.9 ± 31.1 96.6 ± 31.4 100.7 ± 31.7 0.689
 Fasting glucose, mg/dl 91.5 ± 11.1 89.8 ± 9.3 95.1 ± 13.9 0.141
 Creatinine, mg/dl 0.74 ± 0.12 0.72 ± 0.12 0.76 ± 0.11 0.300
Atherosclerosis, mean ± SD
 cIMT, mm 0.68 ± 0.13 0.69 ± 0.13 0.66 ± 0.13 0.596
 FMD, % 6.00 ± 2.06 5.85 ± 2.05 6.31 ± 2.12 0.494
 baPWV, cm/s 1708.8 ± 303.3 1693.7 ± 348.3 1740.3 ± 185.3 0.643
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). anti-CCP anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, BMI body-mass index, DAS-28 disease activity score-28, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, RAPID3 routine assessment of patient index data 3, HAQ Health Assessment Questionnaire, BP blood pressure, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, cIMT carotid intima-media thickness, FMD flow-mediated dilatation, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity